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Masters of Special Education with Academic Instruction Certification

Inclusion - Topic 3

What is it?

     Inclusive education means students with disabilities receive the services and supports appropriate for their individual needs within the general education setting.  Inclusion can be characterized by the extent to which services are provide for the student within the general education classroom.  Full inclusion implies that all instruction and support services are provided in the general education classroom.  Partial inclusion means that students with disabilities receive some of their educational services and instruction in a general education class but also receive a portion of these services in another instructional setting when appropriate.

     Research indicates that Inclusive Schools are most effective when careful attention is paid to the following characteristics:


Why is it important?

      Inclusive education grew out of the Regular Education Initiative inspired by parent and professional concerns that the distinction between general education and special education promoted isolation and created an ineffective and discriminatory system.  Inclusive education was designed to promoted improved social interaction and access to more rigorous academic experiences for students with disabilities.  These conditions are necessary to support the integration of students with disabilities in society.  Inclusive school experiences can promote more successful transition to adult life.  Researchers have effectively argued that caution needs to be applied in making inclusive education decisions to ensure that students with disabilities continue to receive the instruction models and services that have been proven to be effective in the past (Zigmon, Kloo, & Volonino, 2009).

Hardman, M.L., Drew, C.J., Egan, M.W. & Wolf, B. (2011) Human Exceptionality, Society, School and

        Family (10th Edition), Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.

Zigmond, N., Kloo, A. and Volonino, V. (2009) What, where, and how? Special education in the climate of full

inclusion, Exceptionality, 17(4): 189–204.

Web Links

      Inclusive Schools Network

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